This article is about the chapter of Adventurous English Vol I. We can learn all the content (Four-level | Summary | Answer question-related to this chapter “How Sane Are We?” of it and some important question from an exam point of view below;
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Anuradha Chaudhary is a professor of environmental biology. He was teaching for the past eight years. She is trying to reveal the importance of natural resources, maintenance of the ecosystem, biosphere, etc. She starts her essay “How Sane Are We?” through the word of Rudyard Kipling. Rudyard Kipling said that we betrayed our sons. Our ancestors left many things for us but we don`t save them. Again, and again time were warned us but we don`t pay attention to it. We have slain (kill in a violent way) our own sons. Our future generation can’t survive on the earth. We have to die in shame.
She is going to reveal the facts and concepts in this essay that may be restructuring the world`s political, social, and economic systems. She wants her students to jump from incontrovertible facts to final conclusions on their own but she thinks, they rarely do it. Most of the students have a deeper sense of ecological issues although they don`t see that how politics dissolve our ecological system.
She made accusations against humankind on the protection and saving the nature. The health of the biosphere depends upon the human’s ability of thinking and doing politics. She is trying to highlight that we must take a rational decision that is in favor of the environment. But when we have to behave like a rational, we behave more irrationally. Anuradha Chaudhary has explained one of the collective irrational decisions. This decision was to invented and use CFCs (Chlorofluorocarbon) which badly harm the world ecosystem.
These CFCs were first invented in 1930. This gas came due to the used of coolants (in refrigerator and air conditioners), as foam-blowing agents (in such things as takeout food trays and cups), as propellants in spray cans, and as cleaning agents for computer chips. Today, more than 20% of the greenhouse effect, unprecedented climate change, flooding is caused due to CFCs. It also causes a significant reduction in the ozone layer. This ozone layer found in the stratosphere (20km-30km above). This ozone layer absorbing more than 99% of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. Depletion of the ozone layer might allow more ultraviolet radiation to reach the ground and disrupt the natural ecosystem, lower agricultural productivity, suppress the human immune system, and raise the incidence of skin cancer and eye cataracts. In long-run, this may be the reason for the extinction of life from the earth.
In 1974, scientists suspected, our ozone layer is depleted by CFCs. The huge controversy was taken place to stop the CFCs. Finally, in 1978 United States, Canada, Sweden, and Norway banned the CFCs -only in aerosol sprays to control over CFCs. In 1985, the Scientific station of Antarctica was alarming that the ozone layer was damaged slowly. As a result, in 1990 world`s nation was engaged to stop the production of CFCs.
In 1992, 5% of the ozone had been destroyed. Then after the world’s nation agreed to replace CFCs with less destructive material. In some cases, CFCs were replaced with easily available, cheaper, and harmless material to the environment. For instance, reusable glass cups instead of CFC-containing Styrofoam cups; ammonia as a refrigerator instead of CFCs. By March 1995, Europe and United States reported that they reduced the CFCs by 10% to 20%. They expect to reach their lowest levels over the next decade and to fully recover by 2066.
In the next fifty years, there is the possibility of 240 million humans might have skin cancer of which 4 million dies. It all due to ozone depletion. Eight million people will have eye cataracts of which many people may become blind. It decreases our immune system and also damages our ecosystem. it also decreases the fertility of the land. As a result, it decreases productivity. One day, it will be the reason for the extinction of some wild species. These all are happening due to the irrational decisions of using CFCs.
Things made with the help of CFCs are not necessary to live an average quality life. We use CFCs in such things as coffee cups despite the availability of Styrofoam cups (a kind of expanded polystyrene). And the second threat to the environment CO2 gases. This is due to deforestation. It also enhanced the greenhouse effect.
We are responsible for destroying our own life. Anuradha Chaudhary says these through the tale “War with the Newts” written by Karel Capek’s. She says that human beings are greedy, shortsighted, and stupid. Now, the human being is involved in making different types of equipment, machine, and even guns, missiles, bombs for war. One day, these are the reason for the extinction of life from the earth. Politicians are not worried about it. They only think about their next election, how they will win the next election. Our population was increasing rapidly but the carrying capacity of the biosphere is limit. we are living in an advanced world where every type of facility people get. This freedom and civilization lead us to the graveyard. So, we have to prevent our environment. We can`t depend upon the politicians for saving the environment because they only think about their next election.
In the essay “How Sane Are We?”, At last, she said that If we fail to take decisive action if we fail to bring about fundamental changes in our ways of thinking and doing politics now then human and even animal life might extinct from the earth.
This essay “How Sane Are We?” written by Anuradha Chaudhary. She is trying to reveal the importance of nature, ecosystem, biosphere, or environment for the survival of human beings and animals on the earth. She suggested minimizing the use of CFC gases. Due to these gases, the ozone layer is depleting day by day. It caused skin cancer, eye cataracts, and other diseases. So, we have to save the environment otherwise it might be the reason for the extinction of life from the earth. we think we are a social animal who is wise, clever, intelligent, skillful, knowledgeable, and wisdom than other animals. But if facts we insane, we are destroying our own shelter. We dig our own graveyard.
Anuradha Chaudhary tries to draw our attention to saving the environment through this essay. This essay is very impressive to us. She says that the uses of CFCs in industry damage the ozone layer, which caused skin cancer, eye cataracts, etc. She also says that these might be the reason for the extinction of life from the earth. But, she ignores the advantages that we get from it. By the use of CFCs in the industry, we get many things like refrigerators air conditioners, food trays, and cups, and also computer chips. Due to these all, we live a stylish, standard, and comfortable life.
After reading this essay, I know the importance of an ecosystem or environment for the survival of humans and animals on the earth. I know that why our land productivity is declining day by day, why most people suffer from skin cancer, eye cataracts, or other diseases and even die from it. From now, I don’t use those materials or things that are made from the use of CFCs. I also suggest my friend, relatives, and neighbors do not use those things.
Answer these Question:
Yes, She answered her own question (“How Sane Are We”). We human beings think we are social animals who are more intelligent, wise, skillful, and wisdom than other animals. But in fact, we are insane. We are destroying our own house ie. earth. We dig our own graveyard. In the essay, the writer says that we are insane, irrational who don`t make rational decisions. She shows one of the irrational decisions taken by human beings of the use of CFCs for making different equipment, machine, guns, and others. We are also aware of the effect of it on both human and animals life. The ozone layer is depleting day by day. Due to it, human beings suffer from different types of diseases like skin cancer, eye cataracts, and other diseases.
In the essay “How Sane Are We?”, At last, She says that if we fail to take decisive action if we fail to bring about fundamental changes in our ways of thinking and doing politics. Then, this will the reason for the extinction of life from the earth in the coming future.
The seven most significant bits of information I have learned from reading “How Sane Are We”? are as follows:
i) After reading this essay, I learn about the importance of ecosystem, environment, etc
ii) I learn the reason for the depletion of the ozone layer due to CFCs
iii) I know the causes of skin cancer, eye cataracts, etc
iv) Human beings are responsible for destroying their own shelter ie. earth
v) We are responsible for the extinction of humans and animal life from the earth.
vi) Human beings are digging the graveyard for themselves and also for our future generation
vii) We must save the natural resources. environment and ecosystem for survival on earth.
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